Knowing the different types of wood and their uses can help us choose a strong material when doing a carpentry, DIY, or construction project. In this sense, the quality of the wood influences the work process, as well as its appearance, texture, flexibility and resistance.
There are many types of trees, so it is not surprising that wood is available in a myriad of shapes and sizes for use in building objects and structures. Before defining the different varieties of woods , it is important to understand the 3 main groups that we can find today.
1. Soft woods
Softwoods are cut from trees characterized by having a straight trunk and producing pineapple-shaped fruits, such as pines, cedars, redwoods, among others. The fact of being considered soft does not indicate the real resistance of the surface, since there are hard woods that are more flexible and weak to be worked with a milling machine . Although it is also true that some hardwoods are so rigid that they are difficult to carve.
It should be noted that soft woods are normally very resistant, so they are useful in construction projects. In the case of pine and spruce, they are suitable softwoods for framing and reinforcing structures, while cedar and redwood may be more appropriate for outdoor projects, such as deck and furniture assemblies, as it can resist damage. moisture and insects.
2. Hard woods
The trees that make up the group of hardwoods are mostly deciduous , scientifically known as angiosperms, since they are capable of producing seeds. Among these are oak, mahogany, maple, walnut, cherry, among others. These species are typically used to create wooden floors, doors, trim, and furniture. In addition, they are suitable for carpentry applications and can be easily varnished to obtain better finishes.
This type of wood is distinguished from softwood because it incorporates trees with different grain patterns, which enhances its appeal. On the other hand, we must mention that among the hardwoods there are also trees that are not deciduous, such as palm and bamboo, scientifically called monocots.
3. Engineered woods
Engineered wood is made up of planks that are not found naturally in the environment, but are instead made from the waste of different types of wood in sawmills. However, for its production, the material must go through different chemical and thermal processes that allow it to reach the desired size and consistency. The most popular examples of engineered lumber include medium-density oriented strand board, as well as plywood.
Types of woods
This is one of the most popular and used woods, especially in the construction of high-quality furniture and pieces, since its surface is resistant to shocks and the passage of time, thus providing a long useful life. Regarding the color, we can get white and red oak . The former is a hardwood commonly used in flooring, as it can resist moisture and is easy to seal. On the other hand, redwood oak is softer and more flexible, which is why carpenters use it to assemble watches and other objects with very delicate and detailed finishes.
This is a wood that comes from the American Black Cherry fruit tree, distinguished by its light pink initial color. Over time, it darkens to a reddish hue with black specks, generated from mineral deposits on the surface, resulting in a dark wood. Also, it can resist deformation and shrinkage, making it suitable for assembling parquet floors and furniture.
It is a hard wood that has an almost white hue when freshly cut, but soon after it acquires a honey color, a consequence of exposure to sunlight and air. In addition, it is suitable for carving and turning, it also offers a very smooth surface that can be stained and painted according to your needs. On the other hand, alder trees do not usually have a large diameter, so their light wood is used to build small structures, such as furniture, photo frames and decorative objects.
Oriented Strand Board
It is an engineered wood, so for its manufacture it must go through a thermal heating process where the strands are combined with the resin, providing a light and resistant wood. Typically this type of board is completely uniform in size and thickness, but has a textured surface due to the wood strands, which can provide a more rustic, handcrafted finish, but also more difficult to paint.
It is a very versatile softwood that is economical and sustainable, since pines can grow to great heights quickly, so its planting is one of the most used today. Also, pine wood usually provides light tones, which can be stained or covered with transparent paint that acts as a protective sealant, strengthening its natural yellow wood tone.
Mahogany wood is a premium quality exotic material that is commonly used in the manufacture of furniture . It usually provides a pink tone that darkens over time, in the same way, it is easy to dye to adapt it to different projects. On the other hand, it is an expensive wood that many manufacturers tend to use in the manufacture of guitars and pianos, because it produces cleaner tones acoustically.
Finally, we must point out that choosing the correct type of wood can determine the quality of the finished product. In addition, it is important to mention that wood has different variations in its structural properties, which can affect its use in each project, as well as its attractiveness and durability.