Cement is a binder material that is made up of a ground mixture of limestone and calcined clay, whose main property is its ability to harden on contact with water. Cement is widely used in civil works, but also for some home repairs, so it is always important to know how to make concrete and cement at home.
Cement has been one of the most used construction materials by humanity. The first cement was used in Ancient Greece and was a mixture of porous limestone of volcanic origin. Later, the Romans improved on the original recipe, adding volcanic ash from Vesuvius, creating a material that has withstood millennia under water, something impossible for modern cements that cannot withstand more than 60 years of immersion without deteriorating.
As a result of the wars and invasions that caused the fall of the Roman Empire, human beings forget what cement is made of and it was not until the 18th century when it was used again to create the foundations of lighthouses, in this case the recipe of the cement already adds calcined lime.
However, it would not be until 1824 when modern cement would appear, patented as “Portland cement”, a white cement that comes from a mixture of limestone and clay calcined at high temperatures. In the 20th century, thanks to chemical and scientific advances, new varieties such as liquid cement or fresh concrete were created.
In this sense, modern concretes and cements are a mixture of calcium silicates and aluminates, which is obtained by firing materials of calcareous origin, such as clay, sand and stones of volcanic origin. Each type of modern cement has a different composition, for example, white cement does not contain iron, but it does contain fluorite and cryolite, which is why it is lighter in color than other cements such as ferrous.
What is cement for
This building material is used for a wide variety of purposes, as cement is very versatile and can be used to seal and protect walls, ceilings and floors. In this sense, the most common use of the material is to insulate homes and buildings, as well as to protect them from the penetration of water or to seal an area from air circulation.
In this sense, it is important to know how to make floor cement, for example, to pave an area and turn it into a basketball court with which to play with Nike Revolution 4 shoes . But it will also be necessary to know how to make very hard cement to build walls, as well as light cement, to seal those walls or their cracks.
What does it take to make cement?
First of all, to make cement you must have the right tools. In this sense, you need a sieve, a trowel and a container to make the mixture, which can be a plastic bucket or, if you plan to make a lot, a wheelbarrow with which you can also transport the concrete without getting tired. If you need to make a very large mix, it is best to have a concrete mixer, since these machines allow you to mix huge amounts of cement and, as they keep the mixture moving at all times, it will not dry out or harden, so you can work in large areas and with large amounts of cement.
In terms of materials, to make concrete requires cement, sand and water. Although it is possible to make cement without sand (light cement), it is best to have the correct sand-cement ratio, since this will be in charge of absorbing the moisture. In this sense, for those who wonder how much cement and sand are needed per square meter, the correct measurement is 3 measurements of sand for each one of cement and water.
The sand used to make cement must be construction or river sand. This means that not all sands such as beach sand are suitable, with which the cement would not bind or would be of very low quality, obtaining a brittle and not very consistent result. In some cases cement gravel is used, which results in a much harder mix.
It is also very important to maintain the correct water to cement ratio, as too much water will make the cement very runny.
How to make cement step by step?
To make a homemade refractory mortar, that is, a consistent cement and sand mixture, the first step is to sift the sand well. When sifting the sand, it is sought to eliminate all possible impurities, removing the small stones that will bother when working with the mortar.
Once the sand is sieved, the indicated proportion is added to the cement, which is usually 3 measures of sand for each one of cement. Next, the mixture of cement and sand must be stirred to render, and the same amount of water as of cement is added. In this step, you have to be careful, since if the sand accumulates a lot of moisture, less water should be added, in this sense it is better to stay short with the amount of water, since otherwise it will be a mixture that is too liquid and light.
To finish, you must mix everything well, with the help of a trowel until you achieve a homogeneous paste, without lumps and that moves well, remaining slightly stuck on the sides.
To work with cement, it is very important to lightly moisten the areas where the paste is to be applied, since if cement is applied directly to a dry surface, it will peel off. In addition, if we overdo the quantity when applying the cement on any area, it is possible to eliminate the excesses using a damp sponge or, in the case of dry cement, some esparto scourer.